Magnetic Fields (at 60 Hz AC)
This page last updated May 28, 2017.
Magnetic Field Exposure
In general, while electric field exposure in homes creates an agitating influence on the body that does not allow deep, restful sleep, magnetic field exposure, on the other hand, creates what some consider to be a more harmful influence by depressing the immune system and vitality.
Magnetic fields, particularly from 60 Hz AC building wiring, are a known cancer risk, and when magnetic and electric fields are both present in sleeping areas, the cancer risk is reported to be eleven times higher than with either alone. Electric field exposure can prevent a deep, restful sleep, while magnetic field exposure essentially wears down your immune system and causes a host of symptoms in clients.
The Four Sources of AC Magnetic Field EMF Exposure
The building biology profession recognizes four potential sources of unhealthy magnetic field exposure in homes. They include:
These potential sources of magnetic field exposure are measured either coming in from outside or at various "hot spots" from various sources during healthy home evaluations. I use a Magnii Technologies DSP-523 True-RMS 3-Axis Gauss Meter to measure magnetic fields, as well as a Tri-Field Gauss Meter as a magnetic field "detector". (I do not recommend that you purchase a Tri-Field Meter, unless you choose the Flat Response model, for reasons explained in the magnetic field EMF section of my page, EMF Meters and Instruments, linked to here.
How AC Magnetic Field EMFs Are Created
Magnetic fields are created by the flow of electricity through a wire or other metallic path (water pipe, gas line). These create "flux" lines of measurable magnetic field exposure that extend out around the wire like a tube. The flux field runs parallel to the wire source. The field strength diminishes by a straight one:to:one ratio, whereby at half the distance to zero field strength, the level is half.
For example, if the wire has a magnetic field strength of 100 milliGauss (mg) and it drops off to near 0 milliGauss at ten feet, then at five feet the level would be 50 mG. This is what happens with magnetic fields from outside power lines, from wiring errors on inside circuits, and from electric current on water pipes and grounding conductors. These are all discussed separately below.
The most common sources of magnetic field exposure, however, are from so-called "point sources." These include transformers, electric motors and your breaker panel and electric meter (whether it is a digital smart meter or older analog mechanical meter). Point sources do have high magnetic field exposure levels, however the good news is the field strength drops off rather quickly.
In fact, magnetic fields from transformers, motors and your breaker panel and meter drop off exponentially or logarithmically by what is known as the "one over r cubed" law. Thus, at half the distance to zero, the field strength is already only 1/8th the strength that it is right at the source. The field is high but compact, and rarely extends more than two to three feet from these types of sources. The magnetic field from your refrigerator motor, when running, and your breaker panel and meter might extend closer to three feet, but again, the field does drop off rather quickly.
Magnetic fields from linear sources, on the other hand, like power lines and current on a water pipe or grounding conductor under your floor drop off much more slowly. The magnetic field from current on a water pipe or grounding conductor can extend several feet into the room from under the floor, and the magnetic field from an outside power line, especially transmission lines, can extend for half a city block, gradually dropping off by a direct inverse "one over r" relationship, where "r" is distance.
To help you visualize this, please view diagrams of EMFs prepared by Oram's mentor and fellow building biologist, Spark Burmaster of Chaseburg, Wisconsin. Click here and scroll down to see the pertinent diagrams.
To also help "make the invisible visible," a team of designers, Luke Sturgeon of Denmark and his colleague, Shamik Ray, set out to capture magnetic fields on film and video footage. James Holloway wrote about this in a July 3, 2013 post on the online blog, Gizmag, linked to here.
The photo to the right shows what they came up with for the magnetic field emerging up from the hard drive motor of a laptop computer. This is not the exact configuration of the field itself but more a result of their photographing technique, however, bear in mind that the same field also emerges downwards by the same distance, right into your lap.
To see more photos of their work, showing magnetic fields around air purifiers and a cellphone, click here and click on "7 Pictures" or "Image Gallery." To see a two-minute video of how they took these photos, click here.
Safe Exposure Levels for AC Magnetic Field EMFs
Before we discuss how to protect protect oneself from these types of EMFs, we need to ask what are the safe exposure limits for human exposure to magnetic fields? While the regulatory agencies in this country feel that what we consider to be high levels of magnetic field exposure are, in their opinion, perfectly safe, our profession has adopted the more stringent standards used in Europe and elsewhere around the world. As a result, magnetic field exposure levels during the daytime above 1 to 2 milliGauss (mG) are considered by our profession to be relatively unhealthy. At night, when we take our rest, we prefer to see levels below 0.5 mG. This is documented by research that is linked to from my website on the page entitled, EMF Research Citations.
The building biology guidelines are given below, but first we need to review what governmental and non-governmental regulatory agencies say about this topic in this country and around the world:
The US Environmental Protection Agency states, "In the U.S., there are no federal standards limiting occupational or residential exposure to power line EMF." Others, however, including electrical engineer and building biologist Vicki Warren writing on Dr. Mercola's website, emf.mercola.com, state that the EPA does recommend magnetic field safe exposure limits as follows: "The EPA has proposed a safety standard of 1 mG."
The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, finds that human exposure to levels of 300-400 nT (3-4 mG) and up are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. The BioInitiative Report, published by the University of Albany in New York, found biological effects occurring at 10 mG, and stated that, "other researchers used a cut-point of around 2-3 mG, or sometimes even less, as a 'high' average". (References provided here.)
The California EMF Program was created by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) and is administered by the California Department of Health Services (CDHS). It sets no safe exposure levels for exposure to magnetic fields, however they do comment on whether EMFs are a health hazard. From the Executive Summary of the California EMF Risk Evaluation for policymakers and the public:
"On behalf of the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), three scientists who work for the California Department of Health Services (DHS) were asked to review the studies about possible health problems from electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from power lines, wiring in buildings, some jobs, and appliances. The CPUC request for review did not include radio frequency EMFs from cell phones and radio towers...
"THE CONCLUSIONS AFTER REVIEWING ALL THE EVIDENCE:
"HOW AND WHY THE CONCLUSIONS DIFFER FROM THOSE OF OTHER RECENT REVIEWS: While there are important differences between the three DHS reviewers' conclusions, the DHS scientists are more inclined to believe that EMF exposure increased the risk of the above health problems than the majority of the members of scientific committees convened to evaluate the scientific literature by the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences Working Group (NIEHS) in 1998, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2001, and British National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 2001." (emphasis added)
What Local Southern California Electric Utilities Say About Magnetic Field EMFs
Two local electric utilities in Southern California have weighed in on the subject.
"EMF exists wherever there is electricity: in homes, in workplaces and near power lines. Electric fields exist whenever equipment is plugged in, but magnetic fields exist only when equipment is turned on. Both types of fields get weaker with distance from their source. Until more is known, your best strategy is to stay informed and, if you think it's necessary, to limit your exposure. You may be able to reduce your exposure by identifying EMF sources, changing the way you use electric appliances and increasing your distance from EMF sources."
The file path for the LA DWP quote is: Los Angeles County Department of Water and Power's (DWP) main website, then About Us, In Our Community, Your Safety, and then Understanding Electric and Magnetic Fields.
Southern California Edison power company states:
"While there are no federal or California established limits for EMF exposure, some nongovernmental organizations have issued advisory limits. These limits, however, are much higher than the relatively low levels of EMF found in homes, schools, and offices, or even the EMF exposures being studied in relation to childhood leukemia. The advisory limits apply only to short term EMF exposures far higher than those in residential or typical occupational settings. For example, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection recommends that the general public not be exposed to magnetic field levels above an average of 833 milliGauss (mG). In contrast, the average magnetic field level found in U.S. homes is approximately 1 mG. Field levels within inches of some appliances can range in the 10's or 1000's of mG and diminish to below 1 mG within a few feet. Field levels directly underneath larger transmission line are often below 100 mG under normal operating conditions."
The file path for the Edison quote is: Southern California Edison's main website, then Safety, Your Family's Safety, and then Electric & Magnetic Fields.
How This Compares to Accepted Safe Exposure Levels Around the World
The acceptable level of 833 mG quoted above by Southern California Edison is actually lower than some safe exposure limits accepted around the world for magnetic field exposure, which vary greatly. The high end of the range includes values of 50,000 mG (5 million nanoTesla) set by the DKE German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies of DIN and VDE and the German Association of Professional Engineers for occupational workers and 4,000 mG (400,000 nanoTesla) set by the same two agencies for the general public in Germany, and 2,000 mG (200,000 nT) according to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (1996) for occupational TLV (Total Load Volume). (References provided here.)
The safe exposure level quoted above by Southern California Edison from the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) of 833 mG is therefore quite a bit less than the acceptable levels of these other agencies just mentioned.
Compare that 833 mG level, however, to safe exposure levels of only: 10 mG (1,000 nT) set by the Swiss and Brazilian Governments; 4 mG (400 nT) as recommended in Israel; 3-4 mG (300-400 nT) recommended by the World Health Organization as being "possibly carcinogenic" (referenced here); 2 mG (200 nT) as recommended by both Swedish engineers within the Tjanstemannens Centralorganisation (TCO) and the US Congress (1996); and to a level of 1 mG (100 nT) recommended by the BioInitiative Working Group. Natural background levels of magnetic field exposure are found to be less than 0.0002 nT (0.02 mG). (References provided here.)
The reference for the Israeli safe exposure level is an Israeli television news story mentioned in WEEP News for November 24, 2013 entitled, "Israeli TV investigation: electrical beds 'irradiate and carcinogenic', which can be found here. The original link for this news story (in Hebrew) is found here.
The European building biology profession adopted rather stringent limits for EMF exposure in sleeping areas, saying that the level of no concern is 0.2 mG or less. Slight concern is between 0.2-1.0 mG, and measured levels between 1.0-5.0 mG are in the severe concern range. Levels above 5.0 mG are considered to be of extreme concern by our profession. Click here to see the levels.
What Does Building Biology Say About Safe Exposure Levels for Magnetic Field Exposure?
These values are in keeping with the most stringent safe exposure levels recommended by other agencies noted above. The building biology guidelines were originally developed in the early 1990s and last updated in 2008. Our guidelines are based upon European research, the precautionary principle, and the consensus of health agencies on that continent and throughout the world. The American branch of our profession, which certified me and other building biologists in this country, has adopted the same standards as our European counterparts.
Wikipedia defines the Precautionary Principle as follows:
"The precautionary principle or precautionary approach states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is harmful, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking the action.
"This principle allows policy makers to make discretionary decisions in situations where there is the possibility of harm from taking a particular course or making a certain decision when extensive scientific knowledge on the matter is lacking. The principle implies that there is a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to harm, when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk. These protections can be relaxed only if further scientific findings emerge that provide sound evidence that no harm will result.
"In some legal systems, as in the law of the European Union, the application of the precautionary principle has been made a statutory requirement."
The following information is reprinted from the 2008 Standard of Building Biology Testing Methods, which includes a definition of levels of risk as well as reference citations. The standards can be accessed here.
In the building biology profession, acceptable limits of AC magnetic field exposure in the sleeping area are listed as follows:
From the guidelines:
In areas of the house or home office that we occupy during the day or evening, we are less stringent than sleeping areas. Generally we are not concerned with daytime magnetic field exposure levels up to 0.5 mG, and only slightly concerned from 0.5 to 2.0 mG for healthy people. We are more concerned when levels exceed 2.0 mG, as that is the level at which harmful biological activity is known to begin to occur. We are most concerned when levels exceed 5.0 mG.
We must bear in mind that EMF consultants like myself deal with two groups of people in our work. The first is those who are known to be electro-hypersensitive, or EHS. This group is conservatively estimated to be 3-5% of the current population (Levallois, Neutra, Lee and Hristova, 2002; Schreirer, Huss and Roosli, 2006). EHS is a recognized, compensable disability in the Swedish health care system. Studies by medical researchers show that electrical hypersensitivity has a biological basis, however the syndrome is much more studied and accepted by researchers and doctors in Europe than in this country.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, a branch of the European Parliament, passed Committee Resolution 1815 in May of 2011. Entitled, "The potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment," the resolution strongly urges sweeping reforms in the way governments, science, medicine, media and industry approach the issue of the adverse impact of electromagnetic fields on the health of all people from appliances, wireless devices and power lines that we are all exposed to in modern society.
The Council of Europe resolution sheds new light on the degree to which research and clinical experience is showing that long-term use of devices and appliances in common use as well as exposure to power lines do have adverse health effects even at exposure levels considered by governmental regulatory agencies to be safe. This is particularly true for the growing number of people in the world who are termed "electro-hypersensitve." As an example with cell towers, the resolution urges recognition of these people and creation of areas within each country that are "wavefree." Here is the actual passage in the resolution pertaining to the EHS:
"8.1.4. pay particular attention to 'electrosensitive' people who suffer from a syndrome of intolerance to electromagnetic fields and introduce special measures to protect them, including the creation of wave-free areas not covered by the wireless network;"
The full Council of Europe document can be accessed here.
Research on the Potential Health Effects from Long Term Exposure to AC Magnetic Field EMFs
Research showing adverse health effects from long term exposure to ELF, or Extra Low Frequency, Magnetic Fields from AC electric power lines at 60 Hz does exist, though it is not well known. Much doubt is cast upon research that does exist, that doubt coming in an orchestrated manner from the electric power industry (see links below for a discussion of this).
In our professional opinion and in the opinion of non-industry sponsored, independent researchers, primarily outside the United States, the evidence is sufficient to warrant prudent avoidance when possible with regards to long term exposure to AC magnetic fields and to all the types of EMFs that we evaluate and mitigate in our profession.
The concept of long term exposure is important because many of these adverse health effects do not manifest immediately on the gross level, even though there are cellular changes right from the start. Many of us have clients within our practice who have actually contracted cancer from living in homes with elevated AC magnetic field levels in the Severe and Extreme Concern levels of 1-5 milliGauss (mG) and above 5 mG, respectively.
Most importantly, for all clients we deal with, the overarching consideration is for you to decide to what extent are you willing to risk your health by living in a home that has AC magnetic field EMF levels, or levels of any other type of EMF for that matter, in the Severe or Extreme Concern level. If you already have a chronic illness or are electrically hypersensitive (EHS), then you need to exercise caution and not choose to live in a home with anything but Slight or No Concern levels of EMFs, virtually at all times. The same is true, in our opinion, if you have young children or the elderly living in your home or you are an expectant mother.
If, on the other hand, you are healthy to begin with and do not have any of the conditions listed above, then you have more latitude to choose to live in a home with EMF levels in the low end of the Severs Concern range, at least some of the time. You would be well advised, however, to reduce and eliminate all EMFs you do have control over so that you reduce your overall toxic load.
I would not, however, ever advocate that even a healthy person live in a home with EMF levels in the middle or upper end of the Severe Concern level, and never in a home with EMFs in the Extreme Concern range, particularly when it comes to AC magnetic fields. That means, you should not live in a home with AC magnetic field levels in excess of 2-3 mG.
It all comes down to risk ratio, or RR. This is the concept in medical research that an exposed group has an adverse health effect when exposed to a potentially harmful influence compared to a control group. If the exposed group shows no illness compared to the control group, the RR is 1.0. If the exposed group shows 50% more illness than the control group, the RR is 1.5. It is possible to have RRs even higher than 2. The science of sampling is complex, and is explained on Wikipedia here.
You will see in articles linked to below that the risk ratio for exposure to AC magnetic fields above 1.0 milliGauss is above 1.0. As the EMF level increases, so does the risk radio. This means that your chances of developing cancer or some other disease goes up when living in these environments.
Of course, thousands of people live in homes with elevated magnetic field levels who never develop outright disease, just as a certain percentage of people who chain-smoked in the 1960s and 70s did not go on to develop emphysema or die of lung cancer. However, the percentage of people who did was not 1-3%. It was substantially higher, and as the general public and health officials recognized the link between smoking and lung cancer over the decades, people stopped smoking and smoke-free public places came into being, despite the tobacco industry making claims to the contrary.
You have the same situation today with magnetic fields from power lines and exposure to radio frequencies from wireless devices and transmitters. You must decide how large you are comfortable having your own risk ratio be. That depends upon your general health and sensitivity to EMFs in the first place, and how healthy you want to be going forward.
To help you make that decision, I present links below to research on the proven health effects of EMFs:
The first is to information presented in this article above, particularly in my explanation of the safe exposure guidelines for my profession and for governmental agencies around the world. You will see how much accepted safe levels vary from country to country. I discuss how these guidelines came into being and what my profession describes as possible health consequences from prolonged exposure to various EMFs at the exposure levels given.
Secondly, here are 17 research studies linked to on the page, "Evidence of Risk: Studies and Articles" written by Rob Metzinger on the website for his company, Safe Living Technologies, in Ontario, Canada (www.safelivingtechnolgies.com). Rob is an Electronics Engineering Technologist, Building Biology Environmental Consultant, Electromagnetic Radiation Specialist, and principle co-teacher of the Institute for Building Biology and Ecology's (IBE) Basic and Advanced EMR (electromagnetic radiation) seminars that I help teach. The links are found in the section entitled, "Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Radiation" and can be accessed directly by clicking here. Rob teaches our students to follow the Building Biology Safe Exposure Guidelines that I link to above and which can also be accessed here.
Thirdly, here is a link to an excellent review article on the research supporting our profession's stringent EMF safe exposure guidelines written by the other principle teacher of our basic and advanced EMR seminars, Larry Gust, EE, BBEC, EMRS (www.gustenviro.com). Larry is an electrical engineer, Building Biology Environmental Consultant, Electromagnetic Radiation Specialist, and president of our board, based in Ventura, California, northwest of Los Angeles. Larry's article specifically mentions research that indicate health effects from long term exposure to AC magnetic fields at levels as low as 1-3 milliGauss. The effects are discussed in terms of elevated risk ratio levels that range from 2 to 3.8. Click here to see the article.
Fourth, here is a good article on EMFs caused by electric power lines written by an electrically sensitive person in England, Lloyd Burrell, with a discussion of health effects caused by living in proximity to those power lines (www.electricsense.com). The article contains links to research on the subject, accessed here.
Fifth, here is a page with links to articles and studies on magnetic field EMFs from the website for The Swedish Association for the Electrosensitive, accessed here.
Lastly, here is a page on my own website, EMF Research Citations, listing links to articles on non-cell phone EMF issues, including magnetic field from power lines. In particular, there are links to London newspaper articles in 2006 and 2007 on the controversy in England, when university studies showed a link between living in proximity to power lines and increased risk for the development of cancer. Link to the page here.
Presentation of Lectures at Building Biology Conferences on the Physiological Basis for Harm to Human Health from Exposure to EMFs
The building biology profession has held two conference in the past few years, one in 2012 and the other in 2015. We have had several presentations by nationally renowned physicians and researchers on the health impact of EMFs on the electro-hypersensitive population and on the public in general. Presenters have included Martin Blank, PhD and Martin Pall, PhD, among others. The link to the 2015 conference can be found here. Access to streaming video of the presentations from our most recent conference can be found by clicking here. Scroll down to see the full list of lectures you would have access to by signing up to stream the full package.
A Physiological Basis for Electrical Hypersensitivity
There is a physiological basis for electro-hypersensitivity as documented in the following publications:
These electrically-sensitive people, as well as anyone with chronic illness and those segments of the population that are at high risk, including children, the elderly, and pregnant women, all require a higher standard or threshold when deciding what a safe exposure level should be for any type of EMF. These people cannot tolerate what otherwise healthy people can and they are at much higher risk for adverse biological effects according to extensive research and their own experience. For those reasons, we adhere more strictly to the safe exposure guidelines recommended by my profession.
The other population we deal with is everyone else in society who is normally healthy and asymptomatic around various EMFs. What is a safe exposure level for them? Again, we generally recommend the same safe exposure limits we do for electrically-sensitive individuals as a precautionary measure. Our goal is to protect people from possible harm if at all possible. The standards can be relaxed under certain circumstances, but as long as the individual is made aware of what the research shows and what the potential risks have been shown to be, they can take their own measurements and consider those taken by building biologists and other EMF experts and decide for themselves what level of potential risk they are willing to expose themselves to on a long-term basis. Precaution is our primary goal.
More recently, Martin Pall, PhD has conducted extensive research on voltage gated calcium channels, or VGCCs. Dr. Pall discussed this at length in his lecture at the most recent Building Biology Conference held in Seattle in June 2015. A copy of that lecture can be streamed from the IBE website by going here. Scroll down to see the full list of lectures you would have access to by signing up to stream the full package.
How do we protect ourselves from each of the specific types of magnetic fields?
Magnetic Fields from Outside Overhead or Underground Powerlines
Overhead transmission and distribution lines produce potentially significant magnetic fields due to the distance between conductors. There is no cancellation possible when conductors are separated several feet apart. Magnetic fields therefore extend in concentric rings equally in all directions for dozens of feet around each wire like a tube or tunnel.
These flux fields pass through virtually all building materials. The only materials capable of effectively shielding against magnetic field exposure are expensive nickel alloys used in the aerospace industry and available from such retailers as Less EMF. Such materials do not eliminate lines of flux. They just compress them, and if the shielding is not wide enough, the lines of flux simply bend around the edges, so to speak, by propagating towards you from the edges of the shielding material.
Overhead or underground distribution lines carrying lower voltage can likewise emit strong magnetic fields throughout a neighborhood due to imbalances between loads carried on the hot and neutral conductors from so-called "pipe current," discussed below. Governments around the world differ in how they are handling this issue. England has been grappling with implementing a moratorium on residential construction around existing powerlines and trying to issue a ban on constructing new powerlines near existing residences. Russia has reportedly banned powerlines in close proximity to residences for decades.
The best way in my profession's opinion to protect yourself against magnetic fields from any source is to reduce or eliminate that source, if possible, or increase your distance, if reduction is not possible. With outside overhead or underground powerlines, the obvious solution is to increase your distance. When I measure virtually the same elevated magnetic field strength throughout a home, with only slight reduction as I move, for instance, from the front of the house to the back, the cause will be an outside overhead or buried powerline. I will find the same magnetic field strength levels outside the house, gradually increasing as I walk towards the source, just as is the case inside.
There is really nothing you can do about magnetic field levels above 1-2 milliGauss that come inside your home from powerlines except to make a decision whether or not you are safe when these elevated levels are present and whether that means you need to relocate. One always needs to consider the balance between constant exposure to what many experts, including my profession, consider to be a known source of biological harm versus your body's particular ability to repair any cellular damage potentially caused by such a source. Many in the alternative medical community say this should include consideration of one's heredity and family history of illness as well as your lifestyle, most importantly diet. Of course, you primarily need to consider whether you are healthy or already symptomatic in making your decision.
Magnetic Fields from Electric Current on Metal Water Service Supply Pipes
The cause of this type of magnetic field is electric current flowing in or out of your house on your incoming water service supply pipe, if it is metal, and/or your cable TV line from the electrical systems in your neighbors' houses. This causes magnetic fields in certain places in your home, most notably from under the floor above a basement or crawl space. These paths can also run in walls and ceilings.
Ideally all electric current that enters the home on the hot conductors of the electric supply lines should leave the home on the neutral (return) conductor of the same electric supply lines. In actual fact, some of the return current also runs in and out of your home through a metal water service supply pipe and on the sheathing of the cable TV cable. This current then enters the homes of your neighbors via the metal city water main or cable company's lines. These grounding paths therefore interconnect the electrical systems of each home up and down the street with each other, including yours.
When present, current flowing on these parallel paths results in an unbalanced load between the hot conductors compared to the load on the neutral conductor of the electric drop service line coming into your house from the electric utility transformer. As noted above, some of this current is carried on the water pipes and the grounding conductor running in the slab or crawl space, and possibly in some of the interior walls and ceilings. It will also be carried on the electric drop service as it runs up the side of your house. All of this can create unhealthy magnetic field exposure in several rooms on the first and possibly second floors.
This is generally not a problem in most houses in Southern California, particularly in Orange County, because the water department usually installs a dielectric union (plastic ring) in the water line at the street to keep surges of electric current in one house from flowing on the metal water pipe to neighboring houses (not to reduce magnetic fields). Electric current on metal water pipes is a problem, however, in some houses in Orange County and many more in Los Angeles County and in other parts of the countryin in virtually every house supplied by city water.
Electric current can be measured as high as 1-2 Amps on the water service supply pipe and this current can potentially spread throughout the building on the water pipes and all other metallic paths, such as metal gas lines and metal air ducts. This can create unhealthy magnetic field exposure in different rooms in the building.
This is not due to improper grounding. Rather, it is a matter of electricity running on parallel paths in addition to the one and only path it should be running on, which is the neutral conductor of the electrical drop service. This results in unbalanced loads, which in turn causes a lack of the cancellation of magnetic flux normally found in circuits and plastic AC power cords where the hot and neutral conductors are side-by-side and have equal current. When that happens, you thus have equal but opposite magnetic flux size that produces no net current and therefore no magnetic fields.
Beyond the health implications, if the amount of electric current on an underground metalic water pipe or other grounding path is high enough, it can, in fact, create a violation of the National Electric Code (NEC). Specifically, electric current of a sufficient amount on grounding paths causes what is called "objectionable current on the grounding system," which is specifically a violation of NEC Sections 250.6 and 250.142.
You can learn more about this specific code violation from electricians who have commented on this problem for years. Electrician Mike Holt, for example, has written two articles on the subject, which you can read by clicking here and here.
When metal water pipes carry current, however, there is no cancellation because there is no other metal conductor laying right next to the pipe carrying the same amount of current in the opposite direction, as there is in circuits and appliance cords. Hence, you potentially have magnetic fields in amounts that our profession and others consider to be unhealthy.
"Knob and Tube" Wiring
So-called "knob and tube wiring," used extensively throughout the country until the 1930s and 1940s, consists of individual hot and neutral conductors running through walls, basements and attics that are separated by a few inches. They were wrapped around ceraminc knobs nailed to floor joists when the wire ran along the joist, and fed through ceramic tubes when they ran through joists. This type of wiring, which still carries currents in homes built in that era, has two particular drawbacks. It produces high electric fields at all times, and it also produces high magnetic fields when current is flowing through the wires. This is because it does not allow the magnetic field around the neutral conductor to cancel the magnetic field around the hot conductor because of the separation. I will often measure magnetic field levels in excess of 10 mG within a foot or two of a wall containing "knob and tube" wiring (when loads are on).
In the short term the solution is to be aware of the magnetic field exposure levels and how far they extend from the floors, walls and ceilings in which they are located so that you can minimize the amount of time you spend near these areas, again when lights and appliances are on. You can also keep the lights off most of the time and therefore not be exposed to this unhealthy influence when you walk by the areas in which the wires are located. The long-term solution, however, is to replace the knob and tube wiring with new wiring, preferably metal-clad. Doing so will also remove a significant source of markedly elevated electric field exposure, which is present whether loads are turned on or not (but disappear when you shut off the breaker). Knob and tube circuits are also ungrounded, so you will be fixing that problem (of not having grounded outlets), too.
We recommend that clients have their electric breaker panel and circuits evaluated for wiring errors. Wiring errors are another potential source of magnetic field exposure. They are caused by incorrect wiring practices that are inadvertent but common during the installation of electrical wiring, however long ago that occurred in the past. They also occur when new wiring is added, particularly by homeowners and handymen over the years who don't know how to wire properly.
Wiring errors cause parallel paths for neutral return current to flow, which causes magnetic field exposure along the route of the branch circuit(s) when electric loads are turned on. These fields extend out into occupied rooms from walls, ceilings and floors. They also occur when new wiring is added.
The magnetic fields caused by wiring errors create the most serious and detrimental effects on occupant health, in our opinion. These errors need to be traced and fixed to provide a healthy environment for clients, especially if you are EMF-sensitive.
Also, if you ever install Stetzer filters, it is imperative to find and repair all wiring errors. This is because Stetzer filters, which reduce one type of EMF, can unfortunately aggravate the magnetic fields that wiring errors and current on grounding paths create. We recommend testing for and repairing any wiring errors, then continue to use your Stetzer filters for the benefits that they provide, namely reduction of "electro-pollution" caused by harmonic frequencies of 60 Hertz, the frequency of AC electricity in house wiring.
Wiring errors can be tested for at the breaker panel and if discovered, the source can be traced out and repaired in the branch circuitry. We work in conjunction with an electrician to guide them in implementing a protocol developed by our faculty, who are electrical engineers, to find and fix these errors.
To learn more about the detection and repair of wiring errors, I refer you to an excellent book written by Karl Riley, entitled, "Tracing EMFs in Building Wiring and Grounding." Karl has also produced a 23-minute DVD for Southern California Edison showing how wiring errors are created and how to repair them. Both the book and DVD are available from LessEMF by clicking here.
You can also read two articles by Karl summarizing the information in his book. The first article by Karl is entitled, What Electricians Should Know About EMF. The second article by Karl is entitled, Should an Electrician Have a Gaussmeter?.
These two articles provide a summary of the justification for how wiring errors are created and how they cause magnetic fields. All electricians and EMF consultants should know this information, as it is essential in detecting and mitigating some of the most common causes of unhealthy magnetic field exposure in homes and offices. Karl not only discusses the health implications of wiring errors, he discusses how they can also impact electronic appliances and possibly overheat conductors (wires in circuits), a potential fire hazard.
You can also see an excellent five-page summary of this topic in an article written by Karl, entitled, "Suggested Protocol for School Electricians for Correcting Wiring Errors Causing Net Current Magnetic Fields," previously published by the California Electric and Magnetic Fields Program (the funding for which unfortunately ended in the mid-2000s) and available here and here.
Wiring Errors as Violations of National Electric Code (NEC)
In these articles Karl discusses how magnetic fields are created due to un-canceled magnetic fields from wiring errors and current flowing on grounding paths, such as water service supply pipes and cable TV cables, all of which are violations of National Electric Code.
In particular, neutral-to-neutral wiring errors are, according to Karl, a violation of both NEC Code Section 301-3(b), which states, "all conductors of the same circuit -- including the neutral and all equipment grounding conductors -- must be run in the same raceway, cable tray, trench, cable, or cord," referenced here, as well as NEC Code Section 310-4, which, "prohibits connecting a neutral to another neutral such that a parallel return path to the panel is set up, unless the conductors are 1/0 or larger and meet exacting conditions," referenced here. Circuits in most residential settings are not larger than gauge 1/0, and therefore this provision applies.
Likewise, current flowing on grounding paths, whether ground wires within metal-clad or plastic (Romex) wiring, or the metallic sheathing surrounding metal-clad circuits, or on such metallic grounding paths as water pipes, natural gas lines, cable TV sheathing and the like, are also national electric code violations, specifically of Sections 250-24(a)(5) -- 1999 and 250-61(b).
In particular, Provision 250-24(a), according to Karl, "prohibits connecting of neutrals to any grounding connection on the load side of the service entrance main disconnect. Formerly this was 250-61(b)," referenced here. Karl says sections 250-23(a) and 250-61(b) both, "prohibit connecting neutrals to ground on the load side of the service entrance," referenced here.
Unfortunately, many electricians do not follow these provisions nor do electrical or home inspectors find these errors because, as Karl points out, junction boxes are not inspected. The electrician creates these errors out of expediency as a short cut, not knowing the potential for causing conditions that may result in a fire, let alone potentially causing adverse health risks to occupants. Wiring errors must be looked for and corrected, if present.
Current on the Cable TV Grounding Wire
Another potential source of electric current flowing into a house is on the grounded portion of the incoming cable TV wire, and it can also be easily fixed. Even if you don't have active service at this time, this current path can still exist as long as the cable is still installed and connected outside to the utility at the pole or underground.
This current flows because the cable TV wiring is connected at the utility pole (or ground level green cable box out near the street) to the streetside electric utility grounding system, which also carries current on it. This current then jumps onto the electrical system in your house whenever you plug in a DVD or VCR player that has a grounded (three-pronged) plug on it and it has a cable TV cable connected to it. You will notice that television plugs are never grounded for this reason, so they do not pass on current from electricity on the ground of the cable TV cable.
This current can create magnetic field exposure in the rooms beside and above the route of the circuit from the circuit breaker panel to the outlet in the room that the DVD player is plugged into. It is best to check for the cable TV cable as another path for electric current and magnetic field exposure, particularly after the current has been removed from the water pipe.
The best solution is to install a cable TV ground loop isolator in the cable TV cable on the street side of the ground connector.
Note: All of these Ground Loop Isolators will require one Male-to-Male "F" Cable Coupler, available locally at a Radio Shack store or by clicking here. Purchase the "Gold Series" for $4.
Here are online sources for these cable ground loop isolators:
"Point Sources" of Magnetic Field Exposure
Finally, so-called "point sources" of magnetic field exposure also exist throughout most homes, particularly in bedrooms, a home office and kitchen. Elevated magnetic field levels can be measured within one to two feet of all transformers. Transformers are required to step "line voltage" of 120 Volts from electric outlets down to lower voltages, such as 12-14 Volts, to run circuit boards within all electronic appliances. These include printers, laptop computers, modems, computer speaker systems, and LCD (liquid crystal display) electronic clocks.
These transformers are also found inside the cabinet of electronic appliances when the cabinet is big enough to house them, such as a computer tower (central processing unit, or CPU), monitor and even electric clock radios. Therefore, there is a magnetic field extending out one to two feet from the back of these cabinets where the electric power cord attaches to the appliance.
On the other hand, when the cabinet is small enough, the transformer is housed in a small, square box that is plugged directly into an outlet, often on a surge protector or power strip. That power strip, loaded with transformers, is usually located right at people's feet at their computer workstation, and should be moved a few feet away from any part of your body. You may also have an in-line free-standing transformer for some of your electronic devices, such as laptop computers and printers. These, too, should be moved several feet away from your toes. This is also discussed in the section on safer use of computers.
Specifically, you will have magnetic fields created by the transformer in an electric clock radio, although it only extends out about one to two feet at most. Whether you keep the electricity in the bedroom on at night (due to metal-clad wiring in your walls) or shutting off circuits because they are plastic-jacketed, you will need a battery-powered clock, which does not produce harmful magnetic field exposure. You will not want to keep the digital clock radio near the bed with metal-clad wiring in the walls, even if you move the clock away, because you will not want the electric field exposure from the unshielded AC power cord of the clock.
Electrically-powered clocks with analog hands on a clock face, as opposed to digital, have a very large magnetic field, extending three to four feet, well onto your pillow, from the electric motor that moves the clock hands. This type of electric clock should never be on a bedside table.
In your kitchen you will have magnetic field exposure right next to and behind your refrigerator when the electric compressor motor is running. For this reason do not sit or sleep on the other side of the wall from a refrigerator. You will also have smaller magnetic fields from the transformers in digital clocks throughout the kitchen, but they only extend out a foot or so. Avoid standing next to a stovetop that has a digital clock and controls at the front, right in front of your abdomen. This is not healthy and should be avoided.
Click here for recommendations on avoiding point sources of magnetic field exposure at your computer workstation.
To view an extensive list of links to web sites documenting the health effects of exposure to EMFs caused by wireless devices, including cell phones, cordless telephones and wireless Internet (Wi-Fi) routers, click here.
To learn about Smart electric meters, click here.
To view an extensive list of links to web sites documenting the health effects of exposure to EMFs in general, click here.
To return to the main Articles on EMFs page, click here.
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